OPERACE ZITADELLE-POKUS O ZNIČENÍ KURSKÉHO VÝBĚŽKU

9. července 2006 v 15:59 |  VELKÉ BITVY
OPERACE ZITADELLE-NEJVĚTŠÍ TANKOVÁ BITVA V HISTORII
Kurský výběžek znamenal pro německou armádu prodloužení fronty a zároveň dobré místo pro provedení ofenzívy,když by se němcúm povedlo ze severu a jihu prolomit ruskou obranu a obklíčit sovětské jednotky uvnitř výběžku ztratila by ruská armáda velkou část vojákú a válečného materiálu.
Mapka ukazuje směry německého útoku na kurský výběžek.
Erich von Manstein předložil generálnímu štábu plán na zničení kurského výběžku, podle kterého měli německé armády zaútočit na výběžek ze severu a jihu a odříznout ruské jednotky uvnitř výběžku.Plán byl přijat pod krycím názvem operace Zitadelle.Německé velení začalo seskupovat na jihu a na severu výběžku armády,které byly vybavovány novými tanky Panther a Tiger,datum německého útoku byl stanoven na 5.červenec 1943 než budou německé armády disponovat dostatečným počtem válečného materiálu pro útok.Na německé straně fronty bylo k útoku seskupeno 2400 tankú a samohybných děl,přes 900 000 vojákú a 2000 letadel,na ruské bylo soustředěno 3300 tankú a 1 350 000 vojákú a 3000 letadel.Ráno 5.července 1943 provedlo ruské dělostřelectvo útok na německé jednotky seskupené na severu a jihu kurského výběžku,prože ruské velení vědělo o připravované ofensívě z rozšifrovaných německých zpráv.
Samohybná děla a obněné transportéry při operaci Zitadelle.
Přesto zahájili německé armády po dělostřelecké přípravě ofensívu s cílem zničit kurský výběžek,na severu útočila 9.armáda pod velením Walthera Modela a na jihu 4.tanková armáda pod velením Hermanna Hotha.Rusové udělali z výběžku jedno velké obrané pole,každý kilometr postupu byl vykoupen velkými ztrátami jak na německé tak i na ruské straně.Modelovi se podařilo postoupit o 10 km,ale kvúli velkému ruskému odporu musel přejít do obrany.Na jihu se Hothově 4. tankové armádě dařilo lépe,postoupila o 35 km až k městu Prochorovka,ruské velení vyslalo k Prochorovce záložní tankové divize ,aby Hothovu armádu zastavili.Proti sobě stálo přibližně 400 německých tankú a 800 sovětských tankú.U Prochorovky došlo k největšímu střetnutí tankú v historii,i když rusové utrpěli větší ztráty než němci 4.armádě se už nepodařilo postoupit dál.
Tanky projíždí ruskou vesnicí v oblasti kurského výběžku.
Operace Zitadelle pokračovala až do 15. července 1943,kdy byla odvolána Adolfem Hitlerem.I po ukončení operace se ještě bojovalo,němci se snažili oslabit rusi ,aby neměli dostatek sil pro ofensívu.Po operaci Zitadelle zahájili sověti ofensívu pod krycím názvem Rumancev dobili města Orel a Charkov a značnou část území okolo kurského výběžku.
Mapka znázorňuje směry ruské ofensívi po operaci Zitadelle.
Němci ztratili při operaci Zitadelle 500 tankú,200 000 vojákú,200 letadel,rusové ztratili 1600 tankú,700 000 vojákú,1000 letadel.Bitva u Kursku je jedna z osudových bitev ,které rozhodli 2.světovou válku.
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